Vegetable Garden Seasonal Calendar

CalendarThe seasons come and go at different times of the year depending upon where you live—Northern Hemisphere or Southern Hemisphere and the latitude within those regions.

Early spring might start in February in Southern California and early May in Maine. The closer you live to the equator the less winter temperatures will play a role in planting and harvesting—and crop selection.

In the mid-Northern Hemisphere early winter arrives in December and late winter arrives in February; summer arrives in June and comes to a close in late August. In the mid-Southern Hemisphere early summer arrives in December and late summer comes to close in late February.

Think of each season–spring, summer, autumn, and winter–as lasting about 90 days; you can then divide each season into its early, mid-, and late periods. For example early summer in New York state starts in early June and mid-summer starts in early July—early summer last about 30 days.

Tracking temperature averages and day length for a year or two where you live will help you localize your seasonal calendar.

Here is a suggested Seasonal Vegetable Crop Planting and Harvest Calendar:

  • Broad beans: sow under cloches late winter; sow in garden early spring; sow and transplant out in garden mid-spring and late spring; harvest early-, mid-, and late-summer and early autumn; sow in garden mid and late winter.
  • French beans: Sow under cloches mid-spring; sow in garden late spring and early summer; harvest mid- and late summer and early autumn.
  • Pole and runner beans: Sow indoors mid-spring; sow outdoors or transplant out in garden late spring; sow in garden early summer; harvest last summer and early and mid-autumn.
  • Beets: Sow under cloches mid-spring; sow in garden late spring and early summer; harvest mid- and late summer and early autumn.
  • Broccoli: Sow in mid-spring and late spring; set out transplants in early or mid-summer; harvest in late winter and early and mid-spring.
  • Brussels sprouts: Sow in early and mid-spring; set out transplants in late spring; harvest in late autumn and early, mid-, and late winter.
  • Cabbage, autumn and winter varieties: Sow late spring; set out transplants early- to mid-summer; harvest early, mid-, and late autumn and early, mid-, and late winter.
  • Carrots: Sow early varieties late winter; early and mid-varieties in early, mid-, and late spring and early summer; harvest in early, mid-, and late summer and early, mid-, and late autumn.
  • Cauliflower: sow summer harvest varieties indoors mid-winter; transplant to garden summer harvest varieties early and mid-s spring; sow autumn harvest varieties mid- and late spring; set out autumn harvest transplants early summer; harvest mid- and late summer and early, mid-, and late autumn.
  • Celery and Celeriac: Sow indoors late winter and early spring; thin seedlings late spring; transplant to garden early summer; harvest mid- and late autumn.
  • Chicory: Sow forced varieties late spring; sow non-forced varieties early summer; harvest non-forced varieties mid-autumn; harvest forced varieties mid- and late winter.
  • Chinese cabbage: Sow mid-, and late summer; set out transplants late summer; harvest late autumn and early, mid-, and late winter.
  • Endive: Sow in early-spring through late summer; harvest early autumn through late winter.
  • Eggplants: Sow indoors early spring; thin seedlings mid-spring; transplant out in garden early summer; harvest late summer and early autumn.
  • Florence Fennel: Sow mid- and late spring; harvest mid- and late summer and early autumn.
  • Jerusalem artichoke: Plant late winter and early spring; harvest mid-autumn through late winter.
  • Kale: Sow late spring; set out transplants mid-summer; harvest early, mid-, and late winter and early spring.
  • Kohlrabi: Sow mid- and late spring and early and mid-summer; harvest late summer and early, mid-, and late autumn and early winter.
  • Lettuce: Sow late winter and early, mid-, and late spring; harvest late spring and early, mid-, and late summer, and early autumn.
  • Onions, bulbing: Plant sets late winter and early and mid-spring; harvest and store late summer and early autumn.
  • Onions, green: Sow early and mid-spring; harvest mid-and late summer.
  • Peas: Sow early, mid-, and late spring; harvest early, mid-, and late summer.
  • Potatoes, early: Sow early and mid-spring; harvest mid- and late summer.
  • Potatoes, maincrop: Sow mid-spring; harvest early to mid-autumn.
  • Pepper, sweet and chilli: sow indoors early spring; transplant into garden early summer; harvest late summer and early autumn.
  • Pumpkins: Sow indoors early spring; transplant into garden early summer; harvest late summer and early to mid-autumn.
  • Radishes: Sow under cloches late winter; sow in garden early, mid-, and late spring and early summer; harvest late spring through early autumn.
  • Shallots: Sow early and mid-spring; harvest mid-and late summer.
  • Spinach: Sow early to late spring; harvest early summer to early autumn; sow again late summer and early autumn; harvest again late autumn through early spring.
  • Squash, summer: Sow indoors mid- and late spring; transplant to garden early summer; harvest late summer and early autumn.
  • Squash, winter: Sow indoors mid- and late spring; transplant to garden early summer; harvest early to late autumn.
  • Swiss Chard: Sow in late spring and early summer; harvest all seasons from late summer to late spring.
  • Tomatoes: Sow indoors early and mid-spring; transplant into garden late spring and early summer; harvest late summer and early autumn.
  • Turnips: Sow mid- and late spring and early and mid-summer; harvest late summer and early, mid-, and late autumn and early winter.
  • Watermelon: Sow indoors mid- and late spring; transplant to garden early summer; harvest late summer and early autumn.
  • Zucchini (courgettes): Sow indoors mid- and late spring; transplant to garden early summer; harvest late summer and early autumn.